Digestion begins in the mouth. Chewing food mixes the foods with saliva and signals the brain to begin the digestive process. The receptors on the tongue signal the brain regarding what follows in the way of food. The hypothalamus then responds and initiates the hormonal signals to begin the production of all required enzymes and acids for the digestion of the food.

Because many people do not fully chew their food enough to properly begin the processing of starch and carbohydrates, a greater amount of this material converts to fat rather than to energy. Recall how many people you know who correctly chew their food that are significantly over-weight? The answer is, not many. Most people who fully chew their food have significantly less health problems than those who do not.


The initiation of protein digestion is the task of the stomach. Additionally the stomach is responsible for insuring that minerals are broken-down for absorption across the small intestine barrier. Improper protein digestion and incorrect breakdown of minerals is not only due to diets that are high in refined carbohydrates and fast-acting sugars but, almost always because of insufficient production of hydrochloric acid. The most important element in the gastric juices is hydrochloric acid.

The production of hydrochloric acid is dependent upon the correct release of the hormone gastrin. Hydrochloric acid is produced from specific cells inside the stomach. Upon release from these cells, the hormone is absorbed into the blood stream and carried to the fundic cells causing them to release hydrochloric acid. Besides stimulating hydrochloric acid secretion, gastrin evokes the secretion of pepsin and intrinsic factor from the stomach, stimulates enzyme secretion by the pancreas and increases bile flow from the liver. Thus, insufficient gastrin production can result in improper protein digestion, pancreatic and gallbladder insufficiency and vitamin B-12 deficiency (inability to produce the intrinsic factor and inability to cleave the vitamin B-12 from its protein carrier). Although many factors (vagus activity, antral distention, lack of negative-feedback mechanism, pituitary/hypothalamus dysfunction, etc.) can result in insufficient gastrin production, pituitary and/or hypothalamus dysfunction is the problem most commonly encountered (Cytozyme-PT/HPT) by the author.

In addition to the correct production of gastrin, hydrochloric acid production requires sufficient levels of many nutrients, most importantly amino acids, thiamine, zinc and chloride. Hydrogen and chloride are found in the blood stream at a pH of approximately 7.4. The reduction of these elements to a pH of less than 1.0 (the pH of hydrochloric acid as it is released from the fundus of the stomach) requires a great deal of energy. The energy to complete this action is dependent upon many factors but, especially zinc and thiamine. What are two of the first two nutrients lost in the refining of food? Zinc and thiamine; therefore, you can see how the over-ingestion of refined foods has a dramatic effect on sufficient hydrochloric acid production.

The pharmaceutical industry has convinced the public that excess acid production is generally the reason for ulcers, reflux, upset stomach, etc. Over-the-counter medications to neutralize acid have been very popular for years. In the United States, histamine-blockers are now available without a script from the doctor. The histamine blockers generally stop the production of hydrochloric acid. It is interesting that several studies using gastro-telemetry equipment have indicated that most peptic ulcers are not due to a lack of hydrochloric acid; but are mainly due to a need for hydrochloric acid. Remember, the lack of hydrochloric acid results in protein putrefaction and carbohydrate fermentation. This results in the formation of lactic acid, pyruvic acid and sulfur compounds, which will burn the stomach. So here we are, not enough acid will result in the formation of compounds that burn the stomach, which results in the use of over-the-counter digestive aides that further reduce the level of hydrochloric acid. It is a vicious cycle and one that can only be overcome with the understanding that hydrochloric acid is a natural component of the stomach and is seldom present in excess. According to the literature, the following are only a few of the problems that can be associated with hypochlorhydria:

Addison’s disease Asthma Celiac disease Rheumatoid arthritis

Dermatitis Diabetes Eczema Osteo arthritis

Gallbladder dysfunction Grave’s disease Auto-immune disorders Pituitary dysfunction

Hepatitis Lupus Myasthenia gravis Thyroid dysfunction

Osteoporosis Pernicious anemia

Some of the subjective indications of hypochlorhydria are:

Gas and bloating after eating. Sleepiness after eating.

Loss of taste for meat. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Bad breath and/or body odor. Leaky Gut Synderome.

Food and/or environmental sensitivity. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Asthma and other upper respiratory problems. Fibromyalgia

Intestinal parasites. Pancreatic or biliary dysfunction

Laboratory indications of hypochlorhydria:

Total serum globulin increased above 2.8 or decreased below 2.3 (GP and The

Endocrine Glands, Louis Rubel, M.D.).

Serum gastrin below 45 pg/mL.

Elevated urinary indican.

Low mineral values on a hair-mineral analysis.

Decreased serum phosphorus (below 3.0).

Increased undigested meat fibers and vegetable cell fibers as seen on a stool analysis.

BUN increased above 16.

Clinical Pearls for the use of hydrochloric acid:

Studies conducted in 1984, 1989 and 1992, on over 500 patients to determine the need

for hydrochloric acid indicated that the subjective indications for hydrochloric acid were

as accurate, if not more accurate, than the laboratory findings (serum gastrin, total serum

globulin and urinary indican were assessed). Conclusion – If the patient has the

subjective indications of hydrochloric acid need and the laboratory findings are

normal, hydrochloric acid therapy should be initiated irrespective of the laboratory


If the use of HCl in the middle of the meal (Hydrozyme, HCL-Plus or Betaine Plus-HP) aggravates the subjective indications, do not assume that hydrochloric acid is not needed. Often this clinical picture is due to long-standing inflammation or gastric erosion caused by the lack of hydrochloric acid (the formation of sulfur compounds, lactic and pyruvic acid). If this is the case, a protocol to decrease gastric inflammation must first be used.

If the patient improves with HCl but, is unable to reduce the amount required to

ameliorate the symptoms (even with dietary changes), a need for chloride (Celtic Sea salt), zinc and/or thiamine should be considered (all of these nutrients are required for the production of hydrochloric acid).

Heavy metals (especially aluminum, mercury, lead and cadmium) will block the release

of hydrochloric acid from the fundic cells, will oppose zinc, which is required for HCl production and will prevent the production of the energy required to produce HCl (mercury will inhibit the production of ATP).


After the food has been acted on in the acid medium of the stomach, it passes through the pyloric cap into the small intestine. Upon passing through the pyloric valve, hormonal messengers are released to stop the production of hydrochloric acid (enterogasterone) and to initiate the release of pancreatic enzymes (secretin) and bile (cholecystokinin) into the small intestine. In order for these hormonal messengers to be correctly released, the pH of the food passing through the pyloric valve must be 5.0 or less. You can now see why if the hydrochloric acid content of the stomach is not sufficient enough to completely acidify the food, the ability of the gall bladder and pancreas to neutralize the food (pancreatic enzymes and bile have a pH of about 8.0), are significantly reduced. The result is a significant reduction in the amount of nutrients that are able to be correctly absorbed across the small intestine barrier. The food (which is still acid) then creates inflammation in the small intestine, which results in any number of different problems such as allergy, colitis, etc.

The pancreas is further taxed in its ability to produce enzymes by the ingestion of excess amounts of refined carbohydrates (they lack the trace elements and enzymes required to produce pancreatic enzymes).

The ability of the liver to produce bile, which is stored in the gall bladder, is reduced by excess hydrogenated fats, cooked foods, refined foods in general and xenobiotics that reduce or com-promise the ability of the liver to detoxify.

Some of the subjective indications of small intestine problems (biliary and pancreatic) are:

An inability to tolerate greasy foods (gall bladder).

Pain between the shoulder blades (gall bladder).

Stools that are gray or light colored rather than brown (bile insufficiency).

Headaches over the eyes (gall bladder).

Tenderness in the web between the right thumb and fore finger (gall bladder).

Bitter or metallic taste in the mouth (gall bladder).

Bloating after meals may occur up to three hours after meals (gall bladder).

Inability to tolerate fruits or vegetables, especially lettuce (pancreas).

Particles of undigested vegetables seen in the stool (pancreas).

Inability to tolerate sweets (pancreas). Note: This symptom is also associated with

anterior pituitary dysfunction.

Clinical Pearls for the use of biliary and pancreatic support:

Use Beta-TCP if the stools are not light colored and if the gall bladder has not been

removed. If the gall bladder has been removed or the stools are light colored (indicating

a need for additional bile), use Beta-Plus.

In any case where Livotrit-Plus, MCS or MCS-2 are used, always use Beta-TCP or Beta-Plus in conjunction with these two products. The use of Livotrit-Plus, MCS or MCS-2 will result in increased release of toxins from the liver and increased Phase II detoxification in the liver. If the bile is not sufficient or of the right consistency to remove the toxins, the toxins will simply be reabsorbed in the small intestine with a resulting increase in the patient’s symptoms.

With both pancreatic and biliary dysfunction, all fried foods, hydrogenated fats and oils

and refined carbohydrates should be eliminated from the diet. With pancreatic problems,

red meat, raw vegetables and raw fruit (including fruit juice), should be restricted until

the problem is controlled. With severe pancreatitis, hospitalization with I.V. feeding is

sometimes required to resolve the problem.


Problems occurring in the large intestine are often a result of a problem above the large intestine. For example, if the amount of hydrochloric acid is not sufficient to correctly acidify the food, it follows that the ability of the pancreas (enzymes) and liver (bile) to neutralize the acidity of the food will be compromised. The food that then passes into the large intestine has a lower pH than is normal. This results in bacterial imbalance in the colon and bacteria that are normally symbiotic (exist cooperatively) become antagonistic to one another. Bacteria and yeast such as E. coli, candida, moniliasis, etc., are then allowed to proliferate with resulting dysbiosis. Remember, with any digestive problem; always look at the problem from north to south. Often the problem that is manifesting itself in symptoms related to the colon (gas, diarrhea, constipation, etc.), are symptoms that are generated by a problem above (north) of the colon or small intestine (the stomach).

Clinical Pearls on the use of supplemental/dietary support for colon dysfunction:

Insure the patient drinks at least eight (8) full glasses of pure water each day (well water

and water containing fluoride and chlorine are not considered pure).

If the patient is constipated consider the following: MG-Zyme – 4 tablets at bedtime, increasing by one tablet each night to bowel tolerance, Colon Plus Capsules – 4 capsules with each meal. One-half of a small white potato (sliced and salted with sea salt) at bedtime.

If the patient has diarrhea consider the following: Florastor or Bio0Doph-7 Plus – 1 capsule with each meal,

Colon Plus Capsules – 4 capsules with each meal and IPS – 2 capsules with each meal.

Clinical experience has shown that diary products (casein) and wheat (gluten) are

the two food substances most detrimental to patients with either constipation or


Always rule out primary thyroid hypofunction or thyroid hypofunction secondary to anterior pituitary hypofunction with constipation.


To increase Phase I detoxification in the liver consider ADHS. To decrease Phase I liver detoxification, consider grapefruit juice. Remember, if the patient is on a prescribed drug, increasing Phase I detoxification will often result in the patient being required to use more of the drug (the drug will clear the system faster).

For every case of digestive dysfunction where the colon or small intestine is found to be the major problem, you will find 10 times as many cases where the locus to the problem is the stomach (insufficient HCl production).

Sixty percent of the immune competent cells in our body begin their life cycle in the gut and this is probably a conservative estimate.


Adrenal Stress Disorder1


The adrenals are small walnut sized glands that sit on top of the kidneys. Clinically, they are known as the ‘stress’ glands. They contain your ability to adapt to your internal and environmental stressors by secreting different hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline), and cortisol. It is estimated that approximately 85% of the population suffers from some degree of adrenal fatigue. This is not to be confused with adrenal failure, which is known as Addison’s Disease.

Adrenal fatigue, often gives feeling of ‘just being sick’. Most often patients appear completely healthy on standard physical exam and laboratory diagnosis. These are the people who often fall thru the cracks of medical treatment. Something is definitely wrong, but nothing can be found. Until now.

The adrenals weren’t meant to deal with the daily stress of our lives today. Chase a dinosaur, eat it, and rest. Nowadays, people have poor diets, and a very constant stressful lifestyle. The adrenals no longer have a chance to rest and recuperate. Picture them looking like shriveled raisins, rather than plump grapes.

Many (including me) believe this has a tremendous amount to do with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia. People come to see me every day with problems ranging from an annoyance, all the way to “something’s happening, doc, I’m falling apart and I think I’m dying!” The difficulty for most people with this syndrome, is that on paper, they are perfectly healthy. All the tests and labs are normal, but they are getting sicker by the day. There is a reason, it has just been overlooked.

If your adrenal glands are producing too much cortisol, you may develop conditions such as weight gain, especially around the abdomen, depressed immune function with all of the consequences, such as accelerated aging and stomach ulcers. If the stressful situation continues, your levels of cortisol begin to decrease. The problem often becomes fatigue, exhaustion, sleep deprivation, chronic pain, vertigo and recurrent injuries.

Recently, a lot of attention has been directed to the effects of excess cortisol on weight gain and on the difficulty in losing weight. Collectively, the various diet plans being promoted by a long list of diet gurus have a failure rate of approximately 93 to 97 percent. There are several reasons for this. One is clearly the difficulty in achieving behavioral modification in the face of easy availability of the wrong kind of foods, and inherently sedentary lifestyles. Another reason is that our hormones work against us, in the weight loss perspective. High cortisol levels is one of the culprits.

Cortisol and Stress

Cortisol is elevated in response to stress. The adrenal glands are not particular, any kind of stress will do. The stress can be physical, environmental, chemical or imaginary. The human brain is hard wired with automatic responses to protect the body from harm. The classic work on stress was done by Hans Selye, M.D.

(1) In the “Fight or Flight” response, the adrenal glands enlarge and secrete large quantities of adrenal cortical hormones. These hormones suppress inflammatory responses and mobilize the body’s energy reserves. This puts the body on RED ALERT and diverts all of the body’s biochemical resources to immediate survival. The body’s self healing mechanisms are arrested (healing diverts energy and raw materials away from immediate survival), the immune system is suppressed, glycogen stores in the liver and muscle tissue are mobilized to raise the blood sugar level and digestion and assimilation are inhibited. The stomach lining becomes thin and ulcerated and the thymus gland and lymphatic tissue shrinks. This “Fight or Flight” response works well when dealing with man eating dinosaurs, but it is not suited for our modern lifestyle. Battling traffic, competing for parking spaces and watching the evening news produces the same physiological responses as running for your life. And the stimuli don’t stop and go away, leaving the body with chronic high cortisol levels.

(2) All forms of stress produce the same physiological consequences. This includes environmental stress (heat, cold and noise, etc.), chemical stress (pollution, drugs, etc.), physical stress (overexertion, trauma, infection, pregnancy, etc.), psychological stress (worry, fear, loss, grief, etc.) and biochemical stress (nutritional deficiencies, refined sugar consumption, etc.). All of these different sources of stress are additive and cumulative in their effects. As the body responds to this cumulative stress, it goes through three stages of response.

(1) The first stage is REACTION. The body experiences the symptoms from the trauma, infection, heat, cold, chemical irritation, etc. The endocrine system responds with the release of cortisol and other hormones to compensate for the trauma. The heart beats faster, the blood pressure rises, the pupils dilate, and the palms sweat.

(2) The second stage is ADAPTATION. After the adrenal glands have enlarged and released large quantities of adrenal cortical hormones, the symptoms disappear and the individual feels good, has energy, and is able to function in the presence of the stresses he/she is under.

(3) The third stage is EXHAUSTION. After an extended period in stage two, the body’s reserves of nutritional elements (raw materials) and resilience becomes depleted. The symptoms return and there is now no relief. The individual may collapse physically, suffer a nervous breakdown, become dysfunctional and/or experience an organ or body system failure.

It is also important to recognize that an individual in stage two has physiologically adapted and they feel asymptomatic, and are usually, therefore, not too concerned about or even conscious of what is happening. One of the consequences of this adaptation is suppression of the immune system. These individuals are more susceptible to infections, colds, allergies, etc. In the presence of new and dangerous infectious diseases, this can be a very important matter.

The adrenal glands release hormones that help balance the blood sugar (tired/cranky if miss a meal, diabetics), blood pressure (dizzy or lightheaded when get up quickly), pupillary dilation (eye sensitivity to sunlight), allergies, immune system weakness, ability to heal from an injury or infection, and repeatedly injuring oneself from minimal trauma. The question becomes what to do about it. Even for the most serious problems, the treatment is relatively simple. There are many things that you can do at home:


· Hydrogenated or Partially Hydrogenated Oils and Trans Fats

· Refined sugar in all its forms (anything ending in ‘ose’) –sucrose, fructose etc. Corn sweeteners

· All artificial sweeteners

· Coffee, tea, alcohol, chocolate. Anything containing caffeine and sugar

· All refined carbohydrates (the evil whites)- pasta, bread, refined flour, refined grains


· Light to moderate exercise. The key is: if you feel worse after exercising, you did too much

· Rest, meditate, yoga, Tai Chi

· Nutrition: B Vitamins (not high potency formulas), Vitamin C, Essential Fatty Acids/Oils,

· Adrenal Comlexes (supplements with glandular tissues work best to start.

· Eat a balanced diet: Your diet should consist of fruits, vegetables, meat, chicken and fish.

· Acupuncture: One of the best and fastest ways to boost your adrenals, energy and immune system.